Drug Allergies: Understanding, Causes, and Treatment

Allergy Medications: Understanding, Causes, and TreatmentDrug Allergies are an overreaction of the immune system (immune system) to a drug user. This reaction arises because the immune system considers the substances in the drug as ingredients that can harm the body.

Please note, drug allergies differ from the side effects of drugs that are usually listed on the packaging, as well as drug poisoning due to overdose. Drug Allergies can happen to anyone, from children to adults.


Understanding Drug Allergies

Drug allergies are allergic reactions of the immune system to a particular drug. The immune system misidentifies a drug as a substance that harms the body.

Chemical drugs, as well as herbal remedies, can cause allergic reactions.

Causes of Drug Allergies

Drug allergies are caused by the immune system misidentifying a drug as a substance that harms the body.

As a result, the body will make antibodies and cause drug allergies. Some of the drugs that can be the cause of allergies are:

  • Antibiotics (e.g. Penicillin).
  • Anti-inflammatory (anti-inflammatory) nonsteroidal.
  • Aspirin.
  • Corticosteroid cream or lotion.
  • Anti-seizure (anticonvulsant).
  • Autoimmune disease drugs.
  • Herbal medicines.
  • Insulin.
  • Vaccine.
  • Drugs hyperthyroidism.
  • Chemotherapy drugs.
  • Hiv and AIDS infection drugs.
  • Bee pollen products.
  • The contrast material used in imaging tests (radiocontrast media).
  • Opiates to cope with pain.
  • Anesthetics

Symptoms of Drug Allergy

Symptoms of drug allergy generally occur a few hours after using the drug. However, symptoms can also arise gradually, not appearing immediately when first using the drug. In some cases, new symptoms arise after a few days or after a few weeks of using the drug.

Common symptoms experienced by sufferers include:

  • Reddish rash or rash on the skin.
  • Itching.
  • Fever.
  • Swollen.
  • Shortness of breath or exhalation beeps.
  • A snot-nose.
  • Cough.
  • Itchy and watery eyes

In addition to the symptoms mentioned above, severe allergic reactions or anaphylaxis can be accompanied by:

  • The heart is beating fast.
  • The respiratory tract and throat narrow, making it difficult to breathe.
  • Restless and anxious.
  • Dizziness.
  • Loss of consciousness or fainting.
  • Blood pressure dropped drastically

In very serious and life-threatening conditions, the symptoms of drug allergy can be accompanied by:

  • The skin is reddish and sore.
  • The outer skin peels off.
  • The skin looks blistered.
  • Fever.
  • Rash or lending spreads to the eyes, mouth, and genital area

If severe or very serious allergy symptoms are found, the sufferer should be rushed to the hospital immediately.

Drug Allergy Risk Factors

Not everyone is at risk of drug allergies. Some of the risk factors are:

  • Increased exposure to a drug, for example, due to repeated use, over a long period of time, or at high doses
  • Descent. If there are family members who are allergic to a drug, a person will be more at risk of drug allergies
  • Have other types of allergies, for example, food allergies
  • Having an allergy to other medications, for example, someone who is allergic to penicillin will also be allergic to Amoxicillin
  • Have certain diseases, such as HIV or Epstein-Barr virus infection

Drug Allergy Diagnosis

Diagnosis is carried out through the following steps.

  • Travel history of drug allergies, history of other allergies, and history of allergies in the family
  • Physical examinations related to allergy symptoms, including a rash of redness, lending, as well as checking the state of the airway and heart of the sufferer
  • Laboratory examinations include skin tests and blood tests

Drug Allergy Treatment

Treatment is carried out to reduce the symptoms experienced by the sufferer, including:

  • Stop using drugs that cause allergic reactions
  • Administration of antihistamine drugs to inhibit the immune system is activated during an allergic reaction
  • Administration of corticosteroid drugs to overcome inflammation due to a serious allergic reaction
  • Adrenaline injections for people with severe symptoms or anaphylaxis

Allergy Prevention Drugs

Prevention of allergy medications is to avoid the use of drugs that cause allergies.

Some efforts can be made is to inform the doctor or health worker about the history of drug allergies before undergoing any medical treatment or by using an allergy marker bracelet or necklace if possible.

When to see a doctor?

If you experience any of the above signs and symptoms of drug allergy, please contact your doctor immediately to find out the cause and get the right treatment. 

To do the examination, you can directly make an appointment with the doctor of choice at the hospital according to your domicile.

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